Bed Sensor Technology for Objective Sleep Monitoring Within the Clinical Rehabilitation Setting: Observational Feasibility Study
SourceJMIR mHealth and uHealth, 9, 2, (2021), article e24339
Article / Letter to editor
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JMIR mHealth and uHealth
SubjectRadboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
BACKGROUND: Since adequate sleep is essential for optimal inpatient rehabilitation, there is an increased interest in sleep assessment. Unobtrusive, contactless, portable bed sensors show great potential for objective sleep analysis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a bed sensor for continuous sleep monitoring overnight in a clinical rehabilitation center. METHODS: Patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) or stroke were monitored overnight for a 1-week period during their in-hospital rehabilitation using the Emfit QS bed sensor. Feasibility was examined based on missing measurement nights, coverage percentages, and missing periods of heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR). Furthermore, descriptive data of sleep-related parameters (nocturnal HR, RR, movement activity, and bed exits) were reported. RESULTS: In total, 24 participants (12 iSCI, 12 stroke) were measured. Of the 132 nights, 5 (3.8%) missed sensor data due to Wi-Fi (2), slipping away (1), or unknown (2) errors. Coverage percentages of HR and RR were 97% and 93% for iSCI and 99% and 97% for stroke participants. Two-thirds of the missing HR and RR periods had a short duration of ≤120 seconds. Patients with an iSCI had an average nocturnal HR of 72 (SD 13) beats per minute (bpm), RR of 16 (SD 3) cycles per minute (cpm), and movement activity of 239 (SD 116) activity points, and had 86 reported and 84 recorded bed exits. Patients with a stroke had an average nocturnal HR of 61 (SD 8) bpm, RR of 15 (SD 1) cpm, and movement activity of 136 (SD 49) activity points, and 42 reported and 57 recorded bed exits. Patients with an iSCI had significantly higher nocturnal HR (t(18)=-2.1, P=.04) and movement activity (t(18)=-1.2, P=.02) compared to stroke patients. Furthermore, there was a difference between self-reported and recorded bed exits per night in 26% and 38% of the nights for iSCI and stroke patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to implement the bed sensor for continuous sleep monitoring in the clinical rehabilitation setting. This study provides a good foundation for further bed sensor development addressing sleep types and sleep disorders to optimize care for rehabilitants.
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