Task-generic and task-specific connectivity modulations in the ADHD brain: an integrated analysis across multiple tasks.
SourceTranslational Psychiatry, 11, 1, (2021), article 159
Article / Letter to editor
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PI Group Statistical Imaging Neuroscience
PI Group Memory and Emotion
Subject130 000 Cognitive Neurology & Memory; 220 Statistical Imaging Neuroscience; Radboudumc 13: Stress-related disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Radboudumc 7: Neurodevelopmental disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with altered functioning in multiple cognitive domains and neural networks. This paper offers an overarching biological perspective across these. We applied a novel strategy that extracts functional connectivity modulations in the brain across one (P(single)), two (P(mix)) or three (P(all)) cognitive tasks and compared the pattern of modulations between participants with ADHD (n-89), unaffected siblings (n = 93) and controls (n = 84; total N = 266; age range = 8-27 years). Participants with ADHD had significantly fewer P(all) connections (modulated regardless of task), but significantly more task-specific (P(single)) connectivity modulations than the other groups. The amplitude of these P(single) modulations was significantly higher in ADHD. Unaffected siblings showed a similar degree of P(all) connectivity modulation as controls but a similar degree of P(single) connectivity modulation as ADHD probands. P(all) connections were strongly reproducible at the individual level in controls, but showed marked heterogeneity in both participants with ADHD and unaffected siblings. The pattern of reduced task-generic and increased task-specific connectivity modulations in ADHD may be interpreted as reflecting a less efficient functional brain architecture due to a reduction in the ability to generalise processing pathways across multiple cognitive domains. The higher amplitude of unique task-specific connectivity modulations in ADHD may index a more "effortful" coping strategy. Unaffected siblings displayed a task connectivity profile in between that of controls and ADHD probands, supporting an endophenotype view. Our approach provides a new perspective on the core neural underpinnings of ADHD.
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