The World Federation of ADHD International Consensus Statement: 208 evidence-based conclusions about the disorder
Number of pages
SourceNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 127, (2021), pp. 789-818
Article / Letter to editor
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PI Group Memory & Emotion
SW OZ BSI KLP
SW OZ BSI ON
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Subject130 000 Cognitive Neurology & Memory; Experimental Psychopathology and Treatment; Radboudumc 13: Stress-related disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Radboudumc 7: Neurodevelopmental disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Social Development
Background: Misconceptions about ADHD stigmatize affected people, reduce credibility of providers, and prevent/delay treatment. To challenge misconceptions, we curated findings with strong evidence base. Methods: We reviewed studies with more than 2,000 participants or meta-analyses from five or more studies or 2,000 or more participants. We excluded meta-analyses that did not assess publication bias, except for meta-analyses of prevalence. For network meta-analyses we required comparison adjusted funnel plots. We excluded treatment studies with waiting-list or treatment as usual controls. From this literature, we extracted evidence-based assertions about the disorder. Results: We generated 208 empirically supported statements about ADHD. The status of the included statements as empirically supported is approved by 79 authors from 27 countries and 6 continents. The contents of the manuscript are endorsed by 362 people who have read this document and agree with its contents. Conclusions: Many findings in ADHD are supported by meta-analysis. These allow for firm statements about the nature, course, outcome causes, and treatments for disorders that are useful for reducing misconceptions and stigma.
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