Nasopharyngeal Microbiota Profiles in Rural Venezuelan Children Are Associated With Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Infections
SourceClinical Infectious Diseases, 72, 2, (2021), pp. 212-221
Article / Letter to editor
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that the microbiota affects susceptibility to both respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and gastrointestinal infections (GIIs). In order to optimize global treatment options, it is important to characterize microbiota profiles across different niches and geographic/socioeconomic areas where RTI and GII prevalences are high. METHODS: We performed 16S sequencing of nasopharyngeal swabs from 209 Venezuelan Amerindian children aged 6 weeks-59 months who were participating in a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) study. Using random forest models, differential abundance testing, and regression analysis, we determined whether specific bacteria were associated with RTIs or GIIs and variation in PCV13 response. RESULTS: Microbiota compositions differed between children with or without RTIs (P = .018) or GIIs (P = .001). Several species were associated with the absence of infections. Some of these health-associated bacteria are also observed in developed regions, such as Corynebacterium (log2(fold change [FC]) = 3.30 for RTIs and log2(FC) = 1.71 for GIIs), while others are not commonly observed in developed regions, such as Acinetobacter (log2(FC) = 2.82 and log2(FC) = 5.06, respectively). Klebsiella spp. presence was associated with both RTIs (log2(FC) = 5.48) and GIIs (log2(FC) = 7.20). CONCLUSIONS: The nasopharyngeal microbiota of rural Venezuelan children included several bacteria that thrive in tropical humid climates. Interestingly, nasopharyngeal microbiota composition not only differed in children with an RTI but also in those with a GII, which suggests a reciprocal interplay between the 2 environments. Knowledge of region-specific microbiota patterns enables tailoring of preventive and therapeutic approaches.
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