Differentiation and activation of eosinophils in the human bone marrow during experimental human endotoxemia
SourceJournal of Leukocyte Biology, 108, 5, (2020), pp. 1665-1671
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Leukocyte Biology
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Acute infection is characterized by eosinopenia. However, the underlying mechanism(s) are poorly understood and it is unclear whether decreased mobilization/production of eosinophils in the bone marrow (BM) and/or increased homing to the tissues play a role. The objective of this study was to investigate the differentiation and activation status of eosinophils in the human BM and blood upon experimental human endotoxemia, a standardized, controlled, and reproducible model of acute systemic inflammation. A BM aspirate and venous blood was obtained from seven healthy volunteers before, 4 h after, and 1 week after intravenous challenge with 2 ng/kg endotoxin. Early progenitors (CD34+/IL-5Rα+), eosinophil promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, and mature eosinophils were identified and quantified in the bone marrow and blood samples using flowcytometry based on specific eosinophil markers (CD193 and IL-5Rα). Activation status was assessed using antibodies against known markers on eosinophils: Alpha-4 (CD49d), CCR3 (CD193), CR1 (CD35), CEACAM-8 (CD66b), CBRM 1/5 (activation epitope of MAC-1), and by plasma cytokine analysis. Four hours after endotoxin administration, numbers of mature eosinophils in the blood and in the BM markedly declined compared with baseline, whereas numbers of all eosinophil progenitors did not change. The remaining eosinophils did not show signs of activation or degranulation despite significantly increased circulating levels of eotaxin-1. Furthermore, the expression of CD49d and CD193 on eosinophils was lower compared to baseline, but normalized after 7 days. Together these data imply that circulatory eosinopenia after an innate immune challenge is mediated by CD49d-mediated homing of eosinophils to the tissues.
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