Narrative review regarding the applicability, accuracy, and clinical outcome of flapless implant surgery with or without computer guidance
SourceClinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, 22, 4, (2020), pp. 454-467
Article / Letter to editor
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Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research
SubjectRadboudumc 10: Reconstructive and regenerative medicine RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
BACKGROUND: The advent of computer-guided surgery removed the need for complex surgical interventions such as extensive flap elevations, second stage implant exposure, and complications usually associated with conventional protocols. PURPOSE: (a) Analyze available literature reporting on applicability, accuracy, clinical outcome of flapless surgery with or without computer guidance. (b) Evaluate quality of studies, in terms of scientific level of evidence and ethical committee approval. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PUBMED search was performed in July 2018. A first search was based on a general search string limited to "Dental Implants" and "flapless surgery." A second search focused on accuracy of computer-guided surgery using search string "Surgery, Computer-Assisted" or "guided surgery," and "Dental implants." The following inclusion criteria were applied: (a) studies in English; (b) human studies (excluding cadaver); (c) systematic reviews; (d) systematic reviews with meta-analysis. Reviews not mentioning accuracy were excluded in search 2. RESULTS: Nine reviews included in total. Implant survival ranged between 89% and 100%. Early surgical and prosthetic complications reported in 9.1% to 36.4% of reviewed papers. Tooth-supported guides show more accuracy than bone or mucosa-supported guides. Fully guided surgery yields higher accuracy, with lower values for horizontal coronal, horizontal apical and angular deviation (1.00, 1.23, and 3.13°mm, respectively) than those placed with half guided surgery (1.44, 1.91, and 4.30nmm, respectively). Thirty-four of 71 human studies included in nine reviews, mentioned ethical committee approval or compliance with Declaration of Helsinki. CONCLUSIONS: Guided flapless surgery is comparable to free-hand surgery in terms of implant survival, marginal bone remodeling, and peri-implant variables. Clinicians advised to take care in all steps of the protocol, and include safety margins around virtually planned implants. Regarding compliance with research ethics, we should question whether scientific reports of clinical trials performed without an ethical umbrella are trustworthy. Compliance of ethics standards is imperative for submitted research papers.
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