Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Vaginal Radical Trachelectomy as Fertility-Preserving Treatment for Patients with FIGO 2018 Stage 1B2 Cervical Cancer
SourceOncologist, 25, 7, (2020), pp. e1051-e1059
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 17: Women's cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 18: Healthcare improvement science RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2018 stage 1B2 cervical cancer (i.e., tumor size between 2 and 4 cm) is a radical hysterectomy (RH) with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). We evaluated the oncological and fertility outcomes treatment in patients receiving a fertility-sparing alternative consisting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by vaginal radical trachelectomy (VRT). METHODS: Patients with stage 1B2 cervical cancer who wished to preserve fertility were included from September 2009 to September 2018. NACT consisted of 6-week cycles of cisplatin or carboplatin with paclitaxel. If tumor size decreased to 2 cm or smaller, NACT was followed by a robot-assisted PLND and VRT. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were included. Median follow-up time was 49.7 months (range 11.4-110.8). Median tumor size was 32 mm (range 22-40 mm). Complete remission after NACT occurred in seven women. Four women had a poor response on NACT. Three underwent RH with PLND; one received chemoradiation after PLND instead of VRT because of positive lymph nodes. The remaining 14 patients received VRT 3-4 weeks after NACT. Four recurrences occurred: three after NACT and VRT and one after NACT and RH. Median time to recurrence was 20.8 months (range 17.0-105.7). Three recurrences occurred in women with adenocarcinoma with lymph vascular space invasion (LVSI). In four women fertility could not be preserved. To date, four women had six pregnancies, including three live births born at term, two first trimester miscarriages, and one currently ongoing pregnancy. CONCLUSION: NACT and VRT in women with stage 1B2 cervical cancer showed promising results. In 78% fertility was preserved. However, patients with poor response on NACT and with adenocarcinoma and/or LVSI were possibly at risk for recurrence. Long-term results in relation to fertility and oncological outcome are needed to corroborate these findings. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Standard treatment for women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2018 stage 1B2 cervical cancer (tumor size 2-4 cm) is a radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). However, many of these women are young and wish to preserve fertility. Data on fertility-sparing treatment options are sparse, but neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by a vaginal radical trachelectomy and PLND could be an alternative. Since 2009 we performed an observational cohort study in which 18 women opted for this treatment in our center. In 14 women fertility could be preserved. In four patients the tumor recurred. In four women six pregnancies occurred. After careful selection this treatment could be a good fertility-sparing treatment option.
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