An Ovine Model of In Vivo Bioreactor-Based Bone Generation
until further notice
SourceTissue Engineering. Part C: Methods, 26, 7, (2020), pp. 384-396
Article / Letter to editor
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Tissue Engineering. Part C: Methods
SubjectRadboudumc 10: Reconstructive and regenerative medicine RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
The generation of vascularized mineralized tissues of complex geometry without the use of extrinsic growth factors or exogenous cells requires a large animal model to recapitulate the challenges seen in the clinic. The proposed versatile ovine model can be utilized to investigate the use of a customized bioreactor to generate mineralized tissue, matching the size and shape of a defect before transfer to and integration within another site. The protocol results in bioreactors that can be harvested for investigation of the effects of different biomaterials for the generation of bone or to generate tissues appropriate for repair of bony defects; this protocol focuses on reconstruction of the mandible but could be modified for orthopedic applications. The bioreactor packing material can be altered, allowing for the study of various commercially available or novel graft materials. The surgical procedure requires ∼1.5 h to implant four bioreactors adjacent to rib periosteum. After 9 weeks, the harvest of the bioreactor tissue takes approximately 1 h. If creating a craniofacial defect, an additional 2 h should be taken for mandibular defect creation and 2 to 3 h for the reconstruction. Sheep that have undergone reconstruction are typically euthanized after 12 weeks to allow for evaluation of transferred tissues. In this protocol, we discuss the necessary steps to ensure the reproducibility and analytical techniques to assess bone regeneration such as microcomputed tomography, mechanical analysis, and histology. Impact statement Bone grafting is a frequent procedure in the fields of orthopedics, otolaryngology, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Generating customized, vascularized, and mechanically robust bony tissues while eliminating common complications such as donor site morbidity with autograft harvest or lack of suitable mechanical properties with commercially available synthetic graft would greatly improve the lives of patients. A large animal model is necessary to generate tissues of clinically relevant geometries. In this article, a reproducible ovine model of in vivo bioreactor technology toward customized bone generation is presented with broad application to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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