Muscle uridine diphosphate-hexosamines do not decrease despite correction of hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.
SourceJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 11, (2002), pp. 5179-5184
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
SubjectInborn errors of metabolism; Hypertension and Circulation; Neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders; Chemical Endocrinology; Erfelijke stofwisselingsziekten; Hypertensie en circulatie; Neuromusculaire en neurometabole aandoeningen
Animal studies suggest that overactivity of the hexosamine pathway, resulting in increased UDP-hexosamines [UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc)] is an important mechanism by which hyperglycemia causes insulin resistance. This study was performed to test this hypothesis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Eight obese patients with uncontrolled DM type 2 and severe insulin resistance were treated with iv insulin for 28 +/- 6 d aimed at euglycemia. Before and after iv insulin treatment, insulin sensitivity was measured using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, and a muscle biopsy was taken for measurement of UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GalNAc, UDP-glucose, and UDP-galactose levels. Also, isoelectric focusing patterns of serum transferrin and the urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans as measures of final products of the hexosamine pathway were examined. After euglycemia, insulin resistance improved, as demonstrated by an increase in the glucose infusion rate during the clamp from 12.7 +/- 5.6 to 22.4 +/- 8.8 micro mol/kg.min (P < 0.0005) and a decrease in insulin requirement from 1.7 +/- 0.9 to 1.1 +/- 0.6 U/kg.d (P < 0.005), whereas metabolic control improved. Surprisingly, both UDP-GlcNAc, from 8.81 +/- 1.21 to 12.31 +/- 2.52 nmol/g tissue (P < 0.005), and UDP-GalNAc concentrations, from 4.49 +/- 0.85 to 5.89 +/- 1.55 nmol/g tissue (P < 0.05) increased. Isoelectric focusing patterns of serum transferrin and excretion of glycosaminoglycans were similar before and after euglycemia. In conclusion, after amelioration of hyperglycemia- induced insulin resistance, UDP-hexosamines increased in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 DM. These results do not support the hypothesis that accumulation of products of the hexosamine pathway plays a major role in hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance.
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