Multi-Scale deep learning framework for cochlea localization, segmentation and analysis on clinical ultra-high-resolution CT images.
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SourceComputer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 191, (2020), article 105387
1 juli 2020
Article / Letter to editor
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Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
SubjectRadboudumc 12: Sensory disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Radboudumc 17: Women's cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Performing patient-specific, pre-operative cochlea CT-based measurements could be helpful to positively affect the outcome of cochlear surgery in terms of intracochlear trauma and loss of residual hearing. Therefore, we propose a method to automatically segment and measure the human cochlea in clinical ultra-high-resolution (UHR) CT images, and investigate differences in cochlea size for personalized implant planning. METHODS: 123 temporal bone CT scans were acquired with two UHR-CT scanners, and used to develop and validate a deep learning-based system for automated cochlea segmentation and measurement. The segmentation algorithm is composed of two major steps (detection and pixel-wise classification) in cascade, and aims at combining the results of a multi-scale computer-aided detection scheme with a U-Net-like architecture for pixelwise classification. The segmentation results were used as an input to the measurement algorithm, which provides automatic cochlear measurements (volume, basal diameter, and cochlear duct length (CDL)) through the combined use of convolutional neural networks and thinning algorithms. Automatic segmentation was validated against manual annotation, by the means of Dice similarity, Boundary-F1 (BF) score, and maximum and average Hausdorff distances, while measurement errors were calculated between the automatic results and the corresponding manually obtained ground truth on a per-patient basis. Finally, the developed system was used to investigate the differences in cochlea size within our patient cohort, to relate the measurement errors to the actual variation in cochlear size across different patients. RESULTS: Automatic segmentation resulted in a Dice of 0.90 ± 0.03, BF score of 0.95 ± 0.03, and maximum and average Hausdorff distance of 3.05 ± 0.39 and 0.32 ± 0.07 against manual annotation. Automatic cochlear measurements resulted in errors of 8.4% (volume), 5.5% (CDL), 7.8% (basal diameter). The cochlea size varied broadly, ranging between 0.10 and 0.28 ml (volume), 1.3 and 2.5 mm (basal diameter), and 27.7 and 40.1 mm (CDL). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed algorithm could successfully segment and analyze the cochlea on UHR-CT images, resulting in accurate measurements of cochlear anatomy. Given the wide variation in cochlear size found in our patient cohort, it may find application as a pre-operative tool in cochlear implant surgery, potentially helping elaborate personalized treatment strategies based on patient-specific, image-based anatomical measurements.
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