Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are two sides of the same coin paid for obesity
SourceNutrition, 70, (2020), article 110486
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 5: Inflammatory diseases RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Obesity is characterized by adipose tissue expansion and chronic low-grade inflammation. Among the inflammatory mediators related to obesity development are the adipokines. These cytokines are released from fatty tissues and act in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine manner. Adipocytes influence the comorbidities of obesity such as osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA). It is still controversial as to whether OP is associated with either a low or high body mass index, but it is quite clear that the latter condition increases the risk for OA development. Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs) have the same precursors of osteoblasts, which are the primary cells involved in bone formation, and the amount of BMAs appears to be inversely related to bone mineral density. Although adipokines released by these adipocytes influence bone loss progress, their exact role remains controversial. Differently, the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) is indicated to protect the function of joint regarding OA. However, there is relatively limited information about the secretion of adipokines and other inflammatory mediators by the IPFP. Despite some inconsistencies, nutritional interventions targeting obesity may also benefit patients with OP and OA. The association among obesity, OP, and OA is quite complex, and many factors need to be explored that are mainly related to the role of adipokines derived locally rather than from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Also, nutritional intervention may affect fatty tissue mass and secretion of inflammatory mediators that may, at least in part, influence other tissues in the organism such as bone and articular cartilage. The aim of this review was to present the latest knowledge about the interrelationship between obesity and OA or OP and to discuss whether a dietary intervention for obesity will hold promise for patients with OA or OP.
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