An integrative model for the effectiveness of biofeedback interventions for anxiety regulation: Viewpoint
Number of pages
SourceJournal of Medical Internet Research, 22, 7, (2020), article e14958
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OZ BSI OGG
Journal of Medical Internet Research
Biofeedback has shown to be a promising tool for the treatment of anxiety however several theoretical as well as practical limitations have prevented widespread adaptation until now. With current technological advances and the increasing interest in the use of self-monitoring technology to improve mental health we argue that this is an ideal time to launch a new wave of biofeedback training. In this review we reflect on the current state of biofeedback training including the more traditional techniques and mechanisms that have been thought to explain the effectiveness of biofeedback such as the integration of operant learning and meditation techniques and changes in interoceptive awareness and physiology. Subsequently, we propose an integrative model that includes a set of cognitive appraisals as potential determinants of adaptive trajectories within biofeedback training such as: growth mindset, self-efficacy, locus of control, and threat-challenge appraisals. Finally, we present a set of detailed guidelines based on the integration of our model with the mechanics and mechanisms offered by emerging interactive technology to encourage a new phase of research and implementation using biofeedback. There is a great deal of promise for future biofeedback interventions that harness the power of wearables and video games, and that adopt a user-centred approach to help people regulate their anxiety in a way that feels engaging, personal, and meaningful.
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