Latest developments in living kidney donation
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SourceCurrent Opinion in Organ Transplantation, 25, 1, (2020), pp. 74-79
Article / Letter to editor
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Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the first successful kidney transplantation 65 years ago was performed with a living donor kidney, the number of living donor kidney transplantations has increased especially during the last 2 decades. The enlargement of living donor programs was made possible by new modes of living donation and by expansion of the living donor pool. At the same time, the long-term risks of kidney donation have been better delineated. In this review, the latest developments on these topics are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: While the results of ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation are superior to those of deceased donor transplantation, recent meta-analyses show a reduced patient and graft survival as compared with ABO compatible transplantation as well as increased risk of severe infection and bleeding. Kidney paired donation programs can be extended by including compatible couples and by advanced donation, although the latter raises ethical concerns. Living donors appear to have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease and this is especially true for obese donors and probably also for black donors with an APOL1 high-risk genotype. The importance of psychosocial outcomes after living kidney donation is increasingly recognized. SUMMARY: Living donor kidney transplantation remains the optimal treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. To increase the donor pool, a well developed paired kidney donation program and sufficient reimbursement of costs associated with donation are essential ingredients. Other ways of expanding the donor pool, such as ABO-incompatible transplantation, use of higher risk donors, providing donors with financial incentives and advanced donation are associated with medical, ethical and logistical complications. There should be a careful selection and follow-up of living kidney donors with attention for medical consequences as well as for psychosocial outcomes.
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