Brothers in Arms: ABCA1- and ABCG1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux as Promising Targets in Cardiovascular Disease Treatment.
until further notice
SourcePharmacological Reviews, 72, 1, (2020), pp. 152-190
1 januari 2020
Article / Letter to editor
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IMM - Institute for Molecules and Materials
SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 16: Vascular damage RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 6: Metabolic Disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Preventive treatments mainly focus on the effective reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but their therapeutic value is limited by the inability to completely normalize atherosclerotic risk, probably due to the disease complexity and multifactorial pathogenesis. Consequently, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol gained much interest, as it appeared to be cardioprotective due to its major role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT facilitates removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, including atherosclerotic plaques, and its subsequent hepatic clearance into bile. Therefore, RCT is expected to limit plaque formation and progression. Cellular cholesterol efflux is initiated and propagated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. Their expression and function are expected to be rate-limiting for cholesterol efflux, which makes them interesting targets to stimulate RCT and lower atherosclerotic risk. This systematic review discusses the molecular mechanisms relevant for RCT and ABCA1 and ABCG1 function, followed by a critical overview of potential pharmacological strategies with small molecules to enhance cellular cholesterol efflux and RCT. These strategies include regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression, degradation, and mRNA stability. Various small molecules have been demonstrated to increase RCT, but the underlying mechanisms are often not completely understood and are rather unspecific, potentially causing adverse effects. Better understanding of these mechanisms could enable the development of safer drugs to increase RCT and provide more insight into its relation with atherosclerotic risk. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor of atherosclerosis, which is a leading pathological mechanism underlying cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol is removed from atherosclerotic plaques and subsequently cleared by the liver into bile. This transport is mediated by high-density lipoprotein particles, to which cholesterol is transferred via ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. Small-molecule pharmacological strategies stimulating these transporters may provide promising options for cardiovascular disease treatment.
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