Management of infected pancreatic necrosis in the intensive care unit: a narrative review
until further notice
SourceClinical Microbiology and Infection, 26, 1, (2020), pp. 18-25
Article / Letter to editor
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Clinical Microbiology and Infection
SubjectRadboudumc 0: Other Research RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 10: Reconstructive and regenerative medicine RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
BACKGROUND: Severe acute pancreatitis is marked by organ failure and (peri)pancreatic necrosis with local complications such as infected necrosis. Infection of these necrotic collections together with organ failure remain the major causes of admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) in acute pancreatitis. Appropriate treatment of infected necrosis is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Overall knowledge of the treatment options within a multidisciplinary team-with special attention to the appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and invasive treatment techniques for source control-is essential in the treatment of this complex disease. OBJECTIVES: To address the current state of microbiological diagnosis, antimicrobial treatment, and source control for infected pancreatic necrosis in the ICU. SOURCES: A literature search was performed using the Medline and Cochrane libraries for articles subsequent to 2003 using the keywords: infected necrosis, pancreatitis, intensive care medicine, treatment, diagnosis and antibiotic(s). CONTENT: This narrative review provides an overview of key elements of diagnosis and treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis in the ICU. IMPLICATIONS: In pancreatic necrosis it is essential to continuously (re)evaluate the indication for antimicrobial treatment and invasive source control. Invasive diagnostics (e.g. through fine-needle aspiration, FNA), preferably prior to the start of broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, is advocated. Antimicrobial stewardship principles apply: paying attention to altered pharmacokinetics in the critically ill, de-escalation of broad-spectrum therapy once cultures become available, and early withdrawal of antibiotics once source control has been established. This is important to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance, especially in a group of patients who may require repeated courses of antibiotics during the prolonged course of their illness.
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