Oxidative degradation of cyclophosphamide using thermal plasma activation and UV/H2O2 treatment in tap water
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SourceEnvironmental Research, 182, (2020), article 109046
Article / Letter to editor
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IMM - Institute for Molecules and Materials
SubjectRadboudumc 0: Other Research RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
There is a growing concern about pharmaceuticals entering the aquatic environment. Many of these compounds cannot be removed completely in sewage treatment plants. To remove these unwanted medicines from water, oxidative degradation techniques may complement the current purification steps. In this paper we studied the effect of advanced oxidation on the cytostatic drug cyclophosphamide (CP) by comparing thermal plasma activation with UV/H2O2 treatment. Plasma activated water (PAW) contains highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) as a result of electric gas discharges in air over water. CP solutions in tap water were oxidized over a period of 120 min and subsequently analyzed by LC-MS/MS to measure the compound degradation. Plasma activation was applied at 50, 100, or 150 W electric power input and UV/H2O2 treatment was carried out by the addition of H2O2 and placing an UV-C source above the test solution for immediate irradiation. The oxidative degradation of CP in PAW resulted in a complete degradation within 80 min at 150 W. CP was also completely degraded within 60 min applying UV/H2O2 oxidation. Both treatment techniques do induce different structural changes, demonstrating that CP is completely degraded in tap water.
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