No clear associations of adult BMI and diabetes mellitus with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence and progression
SourcePLoS One, 15, 3, (2020), article e0229384
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 15: Urological cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
BACKGROUND: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients are at high risk for tumour recurrence and progression, hence an intensive follow-up procedure is recommended which is costly. Identification of factors that are associated with the risk of recurrence and progression may enable personalized follow-up schedules. Obesity and diabetes mellitus may be associated with a worse prognosis, but the evidence is limited and inconsistent. Our objective was to determine the associations of BMI and diabetes mellitus with risks of recurrence and progression among non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients. METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer between 1995 and 2010 was retrospectively identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and invited to participate in the Nijmegen Bladder Cancer Study (n = 1,433). Average weight during adult life, height, and diabetes mellitus diagnosis were self-reported by use of a questionnaire. Clinical follow-up data were retrieved from medical files. Associations were quantified using proportional hazard analyses. For all analyses, minimal adjustment sets were selected using a Directed Acyclic Graph. RESULTS: Fourteen percent of the patients indicated to be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, and more than half was overweight (45%) or obese (9%). Compared to healthy weight, overweight and obesity were not associated with risk of recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.22, and HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.76-1.38, respectively) and overall progression (HR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.74-1.44, and HR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.69-2.09, respectively). Also, no clear associations of diabetes mellitus with risk of recurrence (HR = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.98-1.54) and overall progression (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.76-1.76) were found. CONCLUSION: Average BMI during adult life and diabetes mellitus were not clearly associated with risk of recurrence or progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Prospective cohort studies with detailed information on BMI and diabetes mellitus before and after diagnosis are needed to confirm these findings.
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