Recessive mosaicism in ABCA12 causes blaschkoid congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma
SourceBritish Journal of Dermatology, 182, 1, (2020), pp. 208-211
Article / Letter to editor
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British Journal of Dermatology
SubjectRadboudumc 5: Inflammatory diseases RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
We report the unique case of a 3-year-old girl who presented with linear erythematosquamous lesions following the lines of Blaschko, suggestive of genetic mosaicism in the skin. Single-candidate gene analyses were performed on DNA from blood, excluding Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome, erythrokeratodermia variabilis and a mosaic presentation of pityriasis rubra pilaris. With whole-exome sequencing (WES) on DNA from the patient's blood, a heterozygous missense mutation in exon 25 of the ABCA12 gene was detected. By manually scrutinizing the WES data, another low-percentage pathogenic frameshift mutation was found in the adjacent exon 26 of the same gene. This frameshift mutation was confirmed with Sanger sequencing in DNA isolated from a lesional skin biopsy. A subsequent cloning experiment was performed to prove that the patient is compound heterozygous for both mutations in the affected skin, explaining the blaschkoid ichthyosiform erythrodermic phenotype. The patient's phenotype was elucidated by the combination of a germline mutation and an acquired postzygotic mutation in ABCA12, resulting in the diagnosis of a mosaic manifestation of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. Postzygotic compound allelic loss in autosomal recessive disorders is extremely rare and will not appear as the typical phenotype of the known germline mutation-associated disease. This is the first report of a proven biallelic mosaic presentation of an autosomal recessive genodermatosis, and we propose the term 'recessive mosaicism' for this kind of manifestation. What's already know about this topic? Specific mutations in the ABCA12 lipid transporter are known to cause different phenotypes like harlequin ichthyosis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma and lamellar ichthyosis. In mosaicism, two or more cell populations that are genetically different arise postzygotically in the developing embryo. In the skin, mosaicism can present itself in different patterns of affected skin, often caused by a dominant genetic mutation. What does this study add? We report a unique patient with blaschkoid congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma due to biallelic mutations, one inherited germline missense mutation and the other a postzygotic frameshift mutation in the ABCA12 gene. This study describes the diagnostic approach and applied research that can be used if one encounters a similar diagnostic dilemma with manifestations suspected for genetic mosaicism. We propose the term 'recessive mosaicism' for this kind of mosaic presentation of an autosomal recessive genodermatosis.
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