Triploidy in zebrafish larvae: Effects on gene expression, cell size and cell number, growth, development and swimming performance
Public Library of Science
SourcePLoS One, 15, 3, (2020), article e0229468
02 maart 2020
Article / Letter to editor
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Organismal Animal Physiology
Animal Ecology & Physiology
SubjectAnimal Ecology and Physiology; Organismal Animal Physiology
There is renewed interest in the regulation and consequences of cell size adaptations in studies on understanding the ecophysiology of ectotherms. Here we test if induction of triploidy, which increases cell size in zebrafish (Danio rerio), makes for a good model system to study consequences of cell size. Ideally, diploid and triploid zebrafish should differ in cell size, but should otherwise be comparable in order to be suitable as a model. We induced triploidy by cold shock and compared diploid and triploid zebrafish larvae under standard rearing conditions for differences in genome size, cell size and cell number, development, growth and swimming performance and expression of housekeeping genes and hsp70.1. Triploid zebrafish have larger but fewer cells, and the increase in cell size matched the increase in genome size (+ 50%). Under standard conditions, patterns in gene expression, ontogenetic development and larval growth were near identical between triploids and diploids. However, under demanding conditions (i.e. the maximum swimming velocity during an escape response), triploid larvae performed poorer than their diploid counterparts, especially after repeated stimuli to induce swimming. This result is consistent with the idea that larger cells have less capacity to generate energy, which becomes manifest during repeated physical exertion resulting in increased fatigue. Triploidy induction in zebrafish appears a valid method to increase specifically cell size and this provides a model system to test for consequences of cell size adaptation for the energy budget and swimming performance of this ectothermic vertebrate.
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