Development and validation of the Guilt and Shame Questionnaire for Adolescents of Parents with a Mental Illness (GSQ-APMI)
Number of pages
SourceJournal of Child and Family Studies, 29, (2020), pp. 1147-1158
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OW PWO [owi]
SW OZ BSI KLP
Journal of Child and Family Studies
SubjectAll institutes and research themes of the Radboud University Medical Center; Experimental Psychopathology and Treatment; Radboudumc 7: Neurodevelopmental disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
Objectives: Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) often experience negative feelings, such as guilt and shame. These feelings may put them at risk of developing internalizing or externalizing problems. In the Netherlands, preventive peer support groups exist which aim at preventing experiencing negative feelings such as guilt and shame. However, current questionnaires which assess feelings of guilt and shame have limitations and therefore cannot be used to measure these feelings in adolescent COPMI. Moreover, it cannot be measured if these peer support groups succeed in preventing experiencing negative feelings, such as guilt and shame. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the 'Guilt and Shame Questionnaire - for Adolescents of Parents with a Mental Illness (GSQ-APMI)', which is specifically designed for adolescent COPMI aged 12-21 years. Methods: The study consisted of three phases: phase 1, 'Operationalization and Item Development'; phase 2, 'Pilot Testing'; and phase 3, 'Psychometric Properties'. Phase 2 included 79 adolescent COPMI; phase 3 included 47 adolescent COPMI. Results: Results revealed that the GSQ-APMI is a reliable and valid questionnaire to measure feelings of guilt and shame in adolescent COPMI. Conclusions: The GSQ-APMI is a short (10 items) and feasible instrument, ready to use in both research and clinical practice to establish feelings of guilt and shame in adolescent COPMI. The questionnaire results in two scale scores: one scale score reflecting feelings of guilt and one scale score reflecting feelings of shame.
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