Review article: diagnosis and management of intestinal failure-associated liver disease in adults
SourceAlimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 50, 6, (2019), pp. 640-653
Article / Letter to editor
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Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
BACKGROUND: Hepatic disturbances in the context of intestinal failure and parenteral nutrition (PN) are frequently encountered and carry a significant burden of morbidity and sometimes mortality. The term intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) refers to liver injury due to intestinal failure and associated PN, in the absence of another evident cause of liver disease, encompassing a spectrum of conditions from deranged liver enzymes, steatosis/ steatohepatitis, cholestasis as well as progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. AIMS: To present an up to date perspective on the diagnosis/definition, aetiologies and subsequent management of IFALD and to explore future consideration for the condition, including pharmacological therapies RESULTS: In adults using long-term PN for benign chronic intestinal failure, 1%-4% of all deaths are attributed to IFALD. The aetiology of IFALD is multifactorial and can be broadly divided into nutritional factors (eg lipid emulsion type) and patient-related factors (eg remaining bowel anatomy). Given its multifaceted aetiology, the management of IFALD requires clinicians to investigate a number of factors simultaneously. Patients with progressive liver disease should be considered for combined liver-intestine transplantation, although multivisceral grafts have a worse prognosis. However, there is no established non-invasive method to identify progressive IFALD such that liver biopsy, where appropriate, remains the gold standard. CONCLUSION: A widely accepted definition of IFALD would aid in diagnosis, monitoring and subsequent management. Management can be complex with a number of factors to consider. In the future, dedicated pharmacological interventions may become more prominent in the management of IFALD.
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