Viral Hepatitis C Therapy: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations: A 2019 Update
SourceClinical Pharmacokinetics, 58, 10, (2019), pp. 1237-1263
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
It has been estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that over 71 million people were infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 2015. Since then, a number of highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have been licensed for the treatment of chronic HCV infection: sofosbuvir/daclatasvir, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, elbasvir/grazoprevir, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir. With these treatment regimens, almost all chronic HCV-infected patients, even including prior DAA failures, can be treated effectively and safely. It is therefore likely that further development of DAAs will be limited. In this descriptive review we provide an overview of the clinical pharmacokinetic characteristics of currently available DAAs by describing their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Potential drug-drug interactions with the DAAs are briefly discussed. Furthermore, we summarize what is known about the pharmacodynamics of the DAAs in terms of efficacy and safety. We briefly discuss the relationship between the pharmacokinetics of the DAAs and efficacy or toxicity in special populations, such as hard to cure patients and patients with liver cirrhosis, liver transplantation, renal impairment, hepatitis B virus or HIV co-infection, bleeding disorders, and children. The aim of this overview is to educate/update prescribers and pharmacists so that they are able to safely and effectively treat HCV-infected patients even in the presence of underlying co-infections or co-morbidities.
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