Cardiac output-guided hemodynamic therapy for adult living donor kidney transplantation in children under 20 kg: A pilot study
SourcePaediatric Anaesthesia, 29, 9, (2019), pp. 950-958
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 16: Vascular damage RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 18: Healthcare improvement science RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
BACKGROUND: A living-donor (adult) kidney transplantation in young children requires an increased cardiac output to maintain adequate perfusion of the relatively large kidney. To achieve this, protocols commonly advise liberal fluid administration guided by high target central venous pressure. Such therapy may lead to good renal outcomes, but the risk of tissue edema is substantial. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the transpulmonary thermodilution technique to measure cardiac output in pediatric recipients. The second aim was to evaluate whether a cardiac output-guided hemodynamic therapy algorithm could induce less liberal fluid administration, while preserving good renal results and achieving increased target cardiac output and blood pressure. METHODS: In twelve consecutive recipients, cardiac output was measured with transpulmonary thermodilution (PiCCO device, Pulsion). The algorithm steered administration of fluids, norepinephrine and dobutamine. Hemodynamic values were obtained before, during and after transplantation. Results are given as mean (SD) [minimum-maximum]. RESULTS: Age and weight of recipients was 3.2 (0.97) [1.6-4.9] yr and 14.1 (2.4) [10.4-18] kg, respectively. No complications related to cardiac output monitoring occurred. After transplantation, cardiac index increased with 31% (95% CI = 15%-48%). Extravascular lung water and central venous pressure did not change. Fluids given decreased from 158 [124-191] mL kg(-1) in the first 2 patients to 80 (18) [44-106] mL kg(-1) in the last 10 patients. The latter amount was 23 mL kg(-1) less (95% CI = 6-40 mL kg(-1) ) than in one recent study, but similar to that in another. After reperfusion, all patients received norepinephrine (maximum dose 0.45 (0.3) [0.1-0.9] mcg kg(-1) min(-1) ). Patient and graft survivals were 100% with excellent kidney function at 6 months post-transplantation. CONCLUSION: Transpulmonary thermodilution-cardiac output monitoring appeared to be safe and feasible. Using the cardiac output-guided algorithm led to excellent renal results with a trend toward less fluids in favor of norepinephrine.
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