TGFbeta/BMP Signaling Pathway in Cartilage Homeostasis
SourceCells, 8, 9, (2019), article E969
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 5: Inflammatory diseases RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Cartilage homeostasis is governed by articular chondrocytes via their ability to modulate extracellular matrix production and degradation. In turn, chondrocyte activity is regulated by growth factors such as those of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family. Members of this family include the TGFbetas, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factors (GDFs). Signaling by this protein family uniquely activates SMAD-dependent signaling and transcription but also activates SMAD-independent signaling via MAPKs such as ERK and TAK1. This review will address the pivotal role of the TGFbeta family in cartilage biology by listing several TGFbeta family members and describing their signaling and importance for cartilage maintenance. In addition, it is discussed how (pathological) processes such as aging, mechanical stress, and inflammation contribute to altered TGFbeta family signaling, leading to disturbed cartilage metabolism and disease.
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