MRI-Guided Ultrafocal HDR Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Median 4-Year Results of a feasibility study
SourceInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 104, 5, (2019), pp. 1045-1053
Article / Letter to editor
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International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
SubjectRadboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
PURPOSE: For the treatment of localized prostate cancer, focal therapy has the potential to cure with fewer side effects than traditional whole-gland treatments. We report an update on toxicity, quality of life (QoL), and tumor control in our magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided ultrafocal high-dose-rate brachytherapy cohort. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Disease status was evaluated by systematic biopsies and 3T multiparametric MRI. The brachytherapy implant procedure under fused transrectal ultrasound/MRI guidance was followed by a 1.5 T MRI for contour adjustments and catheter position verification. A single dose of 19 Gy was delivered to the tumor with a margin of 5 mm. Genitourinary (GU) toxicity, gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, and erectile dysfunction (ED) were graded with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. QoL was measured with RAND-36, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and PR25. International Prostate Symptom Scores and International Index of Erectile Function scores were obtained. Prostate-specific antigen level was monitored, with biochemical recurrence defined as nadir + 2 ng/mL (Phoenix). RESULTS: Thirty patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network low- (13%) to intermediate-risk (87%) prostate cancer were treated between May 2013 and April 2016. Median follow-up was 4 years. Median age was 71 years (interquartile range, 68-73) and median initial prostate-specific antigen level was 7.3 ng/mL (5.2-8.1). Maximum Gleason score was 4 + 3 = 7 (in 2 patients). All tumors were radiologic (MRI) stage T2. No grade >2 GU or >1 GI toxicity occurred. International Prostate Symptom Scores only deteriorated temporarily. Mild pretreatment ED deteriorated to moderate/severe ED in 50% of patients. Long-term clinically relevant QoL deterioration was seen in sexual activity and tiredness, whereas emotional and cognitive functioning improved. At 4 years, biochemical disease-free survival was 70% (95% confidence interval, 52%-93%), metastases-free survival was 93% (85%-100%), and overall survival was 100%. Of intraprostatic recurrences, 7 of 9 were out of field. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrafocal high-dose-rate brachytherapy conveys minimal GU or GI toxicity and has a marginal effect on QoL. An early decline in erectile function was seen. Tumor control outcomes are poor (biochemical disease-free survival of 70% [52%-93%] at 4 years), most likely as a result of poor patient selection.
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