Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea of the ANME-2d clade feature lipid composition that differs from other ANME archaea.
Number of pages
SourceFEMS Microbiology Ecology, 95, 7, (2019), pp. 1-11
Article / Letter to editor
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FEMS Microbiology Ecology
The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a microbial process present in marine and freshwater environments. AOM is important for reducing the emission of the second most important greenhouse gas methane. In marine environments anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) are involved in sulfate-reducing AOM. In contrast, Ca. Methanoperedens of the ANME-2d cluster carries out nitrate AOM in freshwater ecosystems. Despite the importance of those organisms for AOM in non-marine environments little is known about their lipid composition or carbon sources. To close this gap, we analysed the lipid composition of ANME-2d archaea and found that they mainly synthesise archaeol and hydroxyarchaeol as well as different (hydroxy-) glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, albeit in much lower amounts. Abundant lipid headgroups were dihexose, monomethyl-phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl hexose. Moreover, a monopentose was detected as a lipid headgroup that is rare among microorganisms. Batch incubations with 13C labelled bicarbonate and methane showed that methane is the main carbon source of ANME-2d archaea varying from ANME-1 archaea that primarily assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). ANME-2d archaea also assimilate DIC, but to a lower extent than methane. The lipid characterisation and analysis of the carbon source of Ca. Methanoperedens facilitates distinction between ANME-2d and other ANMEs.
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