Elements virtual rehabilitation improves motor, cognitive, and functional outcomes in adult stroke: Evidence from a randomized controlled pilot study
Number of pages
SourceJournal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 16, (2019), article 56
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OZ BSI OLO
Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
SubjectAll institutes and research themes of the Radboud University Medical Center; Learning and Plasticity; Radboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
Background: Virtual reality technologies show potential as effective rehabilitation tools following neuro-trauma. In particular, the Elements system, involving customized surface computing and tangible interfaces, produces strong treatment effects for upper-limb and cognitive function following traumatic brain injury. The present study evaluated the efficacy of Elements as a virtual rehabilitation approach for stroke survivors. Methods: Twenty-one adults (42-94 years old) with sub-acute stroke were randomized to four weeks of Elements virtual rehabilitation (three weekly 30-40 min sessions) combined with treatment as usual (conventional occupational and physiotherapy) or to treatment as usual alone. Upper-limb skill (Box and Blocks Test), cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment and selected CogState subtests), and everyday participation (Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory) were examined before and after inpatient training, and one-month later. Results: Effect sizes for the experimental group (d = 1.05-2.51) were larger compared with controls (d = 0.11-0.86), with Elements training showing statistically greater improvements in motor function of the most affected hand (p = 0.008), and general intellectual status and executive function (p <= 0.001). Proportional recovery was two- to three-fold greater than control participants, with superior transfer to everyday motor, cognitive, and communication behaviors. All gains were maintained at follow-up. Conclusion: A course of Elements virtual rehabilitation using goal-directed and exploratory upper-limb movement tasks facilitates both motor and cognitive recovery after stroke. The magnitude of training effects, maintenance of gains at follow-up, and generalization to daily activities provide compelling preliminary evidence of the power of virtual rehabilitation when applied in a targeted and principled manner. Trial registration: This pilot study was not registered.
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