Pharmacokinetics of HIV-Integrase Inhibitors During Pregnancy: Mechanisms, Clinical Implications and Knowledge Gaps
SourceClinical Pharmacokinetics, 58, 3, (2019), pp. 309-323
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 17: Women's cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and optimal maternal treatment are the most important goals of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with HIV. These goals may be at risk due to possible reduced exposure during pregnancy caused by physiological changes. Limited information is available on the impact of these physiological changes. This is especially true for HIV-integrase inhibitors, a relatively new class of drugs, recommended first-line agents and hence used by a large proportion of HIV-infected patients. Therefore, the objective of this review is to provide a detailed overview of the pharmacokinetics of HIV-integrase inhibitors in pregnancy. Second, this review defines potential causes for the change in pharmacokinetics of HIV-integrase inhibitors during pregnancy. Despite increased clearance, for raltegravir 400 mg twice daily and dolutegravir 50 mg once daily, exposure during pregnancy seems adequate; however, for elvitegravir, the proposed minimal effective concentration is not reached during pregnancy. Lower exposure to these drugs may be caused by increased hormone levels and, subsequently, enhanced drug metabolism during pregnancy. The pharmacokinetics of bictegravir and cabotegravir, which are under development, have not yet been evaluated in pregnant women. New studies need to prospectively assess whether adequate exposure is reached in pregnant women using these new HIV-integrase inhibitors. To further optimize antiretroviral treatment in pregnant women, studies need to unravel the underlying mechanisms behind the changes in the pharmacokinetics of HIV-integrase inhibitors during pregnancy. More knowledge on altered pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and the underlying mechanisms contribute to the development of effective and safe antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected pregnant women.
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