Trending topics and open questions in anaerobic ammonium oxidation.
SourceCurrent Opinion in Chemical Biology, 49, (2018), pp. 45-52
Article / Letter to editor
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Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are major players in the biological nitrogen cycle and can be applied in wastewater treatment for the removal of nitrogen compounds. Anammox bacteria anaerobically convert the substrates ammonium and nitrite into dinitrogen gas in a specialized intracellular compartment called the anammoxosome. The anammox cell biology, physiology and biochemistry is of exceptional interest but also difficult to study because of the lack of a pure culture, standard cultivation techniques and genetic tools. Here we review the most important recent developments regarding the cell structure - anammoxosome and cell envelope - and anammox energy metabolism - nitrite reductase, hydrazine synthase and energy conversion - including the trending topics electro-anammox, extracellular polymeric substances and ladderane lipids.
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