Closed-loop system to enhance slow-wave activity
Number of pages
SourceJournal of Neural Engineering, 15, 6, (2018), article 066018
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OZ DCC AI
Journal of Neural Engineering
SubjectCognitive artificial intelligence; DI-BCB_DCC_Theme 4: Brain Networks and Neuronal Communication
Objective. Recent evidence reports cognitive, metabolic, and sleep restoration benefits resulting from the enhancement of sleep slow-waves using auditory stimulation. Our objective is to make this concept practical for consumer use by developing and validating an electroencephalogram (EEG) closed-loop system to deliver auditory stimulation during sleep to enhance slow-waves. Approach. The system automatically detects slow-wave sleep with 74% sensitivity and 97% specificity and optimally delivers stimulation in the form of 50 ms-long tones separated by a constant one-second inter-tone interval at a volume that is dynamically modulated such that louder tones are delivered when sleep is deeper. The system was tested in a study involving 28 participants (18F, 10M; 36.9 ± 7.3 years old; median age: 40 years old) who used the system for ten nights (five nights in a sham condition and five in a stimulation condition). Four nights in each condition were recorded at-home and the fifth one in-lab. Main results. The analysis in two age groups defined by the median age of participants in the study shows significant slow wave activity enhancement (+16.1%, p < 0.01) for the younger group and absence of effect on the older group. However, the older group received only a fraction (57%) of the stimulation compared to the younger group. Changes in sleep architecture and EEG properties due to aging have influenced the amount of stimulation. The analysis of the stimulation timing suggests an entrainment-like phenomenon where slow-waves align to the stimulation periodicity. In addition, enhancement of spindle power in the stimulation condition was found. Significance. We show evidence of the viability of delivering auditory stimulation during sleep, at home, to enhance slow wave activity. The system ensures the stimulation delivery to be at the right time during sleep without causing disturbance.
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