Epigenetic Repression of Androgen Receptor Transcription in Mutation-Negative Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS Type II).
until further notice
SourceJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 103, 12, (2018), pp. 4617-4627
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Context: Inactivating mutations within the AR-gene are present in only around 40% of individuals with clinically and hormonally diagnosed androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Previous studies revealed the existence of an AR-gene mutation negative group of AIS-individuals with compromised AR-function (AIS type II). Objective: To investigate if AIS type II can be due to epigenetic repression of AR-transcription. Design: Quantification of AR-mRNA and AR proximal promoter CpG-methylation levels in genital skin derived fibroblasts (GF) derived from AIS type II individuals and control individuals. Setting: University Hospital endocrine research laboratory. Patients: GF from control individuals (N=11) and AIS type II individuals (N=14). Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Measurement of AR-mRNA and AR promoter CpG-methylation as well as activity of AR proximal promoter in vitro. Results: 57% of individuals with AIS type II (N=8) show a reduced AR-mRNA expression in their GF. A significant inverse correlation exists between AR-mRNA abundance and methylation at two consecutive CpGs within the proximal AR promoter. Methylation of a 158bp long region containing these CpGs is sufficient to severely reduce reporter gene expression. This region is bound by the Runt Related transcription factor1 (RUNX1). Ectopic expression of RUNX1 in HEK293T cells is able to inhibit reporter gene expression through this region. Conclusions: Aberrant CpGs methylation within the proximal AR promoter plays an important role in the control of AR-gene expression and may result in AIS type II. We suggest that transcriptional modifiers, like RUNX1, could play roles therein offering new perspectives for understanding androgen-mediated endocrine diseases.
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