SourceJimd Reports, 40, (2018), pp. 11-16
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Radboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
A boy presented at the age of 3.5 months with a developmental delay. He developed infantile spasms with hypsarrhytmia on EEG 1 month later. Additional symptoms were delayed visual development, asymmetrical hearing loss, hypotonia, and choreoathetoid movements. He also had some dysmorphic features and was vulnerable for infections. He was treated successively with vigabatrin, prednisolone, valproic acid, nitrazepam, and lamotrigine without a lasting clinical effect, but showed a treatment response to levetiracetam. Cerebral MRI showed hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and a mild delay in myelination. Further investigations including metabolic screening and glycosylation studies by transferrin isoelectric focusing were all considered to be normal. Whole-exome sequencing identified a de novo mutation in the ALG13 gene (c.320A>G, p.(Asn107Ser)). Mutations in this gene, which is located on the X-chromosome, are associated with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I (CDG-I). Mass spectrometric analysis of transferrin showed minor glycosylation abnormalities. The c.320A>G mutation in ALG13 has until now only been described in girls and was thought to be lethal for boys. All girls with this specific mutation presented with a similar phenotype of developmental delay and severe early onset epilepsy. In two girls glycosylation studies were performed which showed a normal glycosylation pattern. This is the first boy presenting with an epileptic encephalopathy caused by the c.320A>G mutation in the ALG13 gene. Since glycosylation studies are near-normal in patients with this mutation, the diagnosis of ALG13-CDG can be missed if genetic studies are not performed.
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