Disease characteristics and treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus attending government health services in Indonesia, Peru, Romania and South Africa
until further notice
SourceTropical Medicine & International Health, 23, 10, (2018), pp. 1118-1128
Article / Letter to editor
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Tropical Medicine & International Health
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and management of Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHODS: We systematically characterised consecutive DM patients attending public health services in urban settings in Indonesia, Peru, Romania and South Africa, collecting data on DM treatment history, complications, drug treatment, obesity, HbA1c and cardiovascular risk profile; and assessing treatment gaps against relevant national guidelines. RESULTS: Patients (median 59 years, 62.9% female) mostly had type 2 diabetes (96%), half for >5 years (48.6%). Obesity (45.5%) and central obesity (females 84.8%; males 62.7%) were common. The median HbA1c was 8.7% (72 mmol/mol), ranging from 7.7% (61 mmol/mol; Peru) to 10.4% (90 mmol/mol; South Africa). Antidiabetes treatment included metformin (62.6%), insulin (37.8%), and other oral glucose-lowering drugs (34.8%). Disease complications included eyesight problems (50.4%), EGFR <60 ml/min (18.9%), heart disease (16.5%) and proteinuria (14.7%). Many had an elevated cardiovascular risk with elevated blood pressure (36%), LDL (71.0%) and smoking (13%), but few were taking antihypertensive drugs (47.1%), statins (28.5%) and aspirin (30.0%) when indicated. Few patients on insulin (8.0%), statins (8.4%) and antihypertensives (39.5%) reached treatment targets according to national guidelines. There were large differences between countries in terms of disease profile and medication use. CONCLUSION: DM patients in government clinics in four LMIC with considerable growth of DM have insufficient glycaemic control, frequent macrovascular and other complications, and insufficient preventive measures for cardiovascular disease. These findings underline the need to identify treatment barriers and secure optimal DM care in such settings.
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