The paradox of rising ethnic prejudice in times of educational expansion and secularization in the Netherlands, 1985-2011
Number of pages
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 139, 2, (2018), pp. 653-678
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OZ RSCR SOC
Social Indicators Research
SubjectInequality, cohesion and modernization; Ongelijkheid, cohesie en modernisering
We aim to clarify a puzzling paradox: while shares of highly educated and non-religious individuals - who generally hold less prejudice - have increased in the Netherlands, levels of prejudice against ethnic minorities have yet risen over time. To solve the paradox, we use cross-sectional data from 1985 to 2011 in counterfactual analyses. In these analyses we simulate that levels of ethnic prejudice within categories of education, church membership, and church attendance are kept constant at the 1985 level and a new simulated trend in prejudice is estimated for the 1985-2011 period. Our findings show that changing levels of prejudice within categories of education are partly responsible for the trend. We conclude that the increasing share of highly educated individuals has not resulted in a decline of prejudice in the Netherlands over time, because all Dutch have become more prejudiced over the years and in particular the higher educated.
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- Faculty of Social Sciences 
- Open Access publications 
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