until further notice
SourceCardiovascular Research, 114, 7, (2018), pp. 944-953
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 16: Vascular damage RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 16: Vascular damage RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 6: Metabolic Disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a member of the nuclear receptor steroid-binding family. The classical MR ligand aldosterone controls electrolyte and fluid homeostasis after binding in renal epithelial cells. However, more recent evidence suggests that activation of extrarenal MRs by aldosterone negatively impacts cardiovascular health independent of its effects on blood pressure: high levels of aldosterone associate with an increased cardiovascular event rate, where MR antagonists exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular mortality. The most important cause for cardiovascular events is atherosclerosis that is currently considered a low-grade inflammatory disorder of the arterial wall. In this inflammatory process, the innate immune system plays a deciding role, with the monocyte-derived macrophage being the most abundant cell in the atherosclerotic plaque. Intriguingly, both monocytes and macrophages express the MR, and a growing body of evidence shows that these cells are skewed into a pro-inflammatory and pro-atherosclerotic phenotype via MR stimulation. In this review, we detail the current perspective on the role of the monocyte and macrophage MR in atherosclerosis development and provide a comprehensive framework of the effects of MR activation of the innate immune system that might drive the pro-atherosclerotic outcome.
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