Differential In Vitro Cytokine Induction by the Species of Cryptococcus gattii Complex
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SourceInfection and Immunity, 86, 4, (2018), article e00958-17
Article / Letter to editor
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Infection and Immunity
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Cryptococcal species vary in capsule and cell size, thermotolerance, geographic distribution, and affected populations. Cryptococcus gattii sensu stricto and C. deuterogattii affect mainly immunocompetent hosts; however, C. bacillisporus, C. decagattii, and C. tetragattii cause infections mainly in immunocompromised hosts. This study aimed to compare the capacities of different species of the C. gattii species complex to induce cytokines and antimicrobial molecules in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cryptococcus bacillisporus and C. deuterogattii induced the lowest levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6 among the five species of the C. gattii complex. Cryptococcus deuterogattii induced higher levels of IL-22 than those induced by C. tetragattii and the environmental species C. flavescens In addition, C. bacillisporus and C. gattii sensu stricto proliferated inside human monocyte-derived macrophages after 24 h of infection. All Cryptococcus species were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human PBMCs, with C. bacillisporus and C. deuterogattii being more efficient than the other species. In conclusion, C. bacillisporus and C. deuterogattii induce lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 and higher ROS levels than those induced by the other species. Species of the Cryptococcus gattii complex have different abilities to induce cytokine and ROS production by human PBMCs.
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