Titin cardiomyopathy leads to altered mitochondrial energetics, increased fibrosis and long-term life-threatening arrhythmias
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SourceEuropean Heart Journal, 39, 10, (2018), pp. 864-873
Article / Letter to editor
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European Heart Journal
SubjectRadboudumc 7: Neurodevelopmental disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
Aims: Truncating titin variants (TTNtv) are the most prevalent genetic cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We aim to study clinical parameters and long-term outcomes related to the TTNtv genotype and determine the related molecular changes at tissue level in TTNtv DCM patients. Methods and results: A total of 303 consecutive and extensively phenotyped DCM patients (including cardiac imaging, Holter monitoring, and endomyocardial biopsy) underwent DNA sequencing of 47 cardiomyopathy-associated genes including TTN, yielding 38 TTNtv positive (13%) patients. At long-term follow-up (median of 45 months, up to 12 years), TTNtv DCM patients had increased ventricular arrhythmias compared to other DCM, but a similar survival. Arrhythmias are especially prominent in TTNtv patients with an additional environmental trigger (i.e. virus infection, cardiac inflammation, systemic disease, toxic exposure). Importantly, cardiac mass is reduced in TTNtv patients, despite similar cardiac function and dimensions at cardiac magnetic resonance. These enhanced life-threatening arrhythmias and decreased cardiac mass in TTNtv DCM patients go along with significant cardiac energetic and matrix alterations. All components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are significantly upregulated in TTNtv hearts at RNA-sequencing. Also, interstitial fibrosis was augmented in TTNtv patients at histological and transcript level. Conclusion: Truncating titin variants lead to pronounced cardiac alterations in mitochondrial function, with increased interstitial fibrosis and reduced hypertrophy. Those structural and metabolic alterations in TTNtv hearts go along with increased ventricular arrhythmias at long-term follow-up, with a similar survival and overall cardiac function.
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