Ectopic bone formation in titanium mesh loaded with bone morphogenetic protein and coated with calcium phosphate.
SourcePlastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 108, 2, (2001), pp. 434--43
Article / Letter to editor
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Preventative Restorative Dentistry
Periodontology and Biomaterials
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
SubjectSurgical Oncology; Implantology and biomaterials; Tissue reconstruction; Chirurgische Oncologie; Implantologie en biomaterialen; Weefselreconstructie
The osteoinductive properties of porous titanium fiber mesh, with or without a calcium phosphate coating and loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or rhBMP-2 and native bovine BMP (S-300) were investigated in a rat ectopic assay model. A total of 112 calcium phosphate-coated and 112 noncoated porous titanium implants, either loaded with rhBMP-2 and S-300 or loaded with rhBMP-2 alone, were subcutaneously placed in 56 Wistar-King rats. The rats were killed 5, 10, 20, and 40 days postoperatively, and the implants were retrieved.Histologic analysis demonstrated that all growth factor and carrier combinations induced ectopic cartilage and bone formation at 5 and 10 days, respectively. At 20 days, bone formation increased and was characterized by trabecular bone and bone marrow-like tissue. At 40 days, more lamellar bone and hemopoietic bone marrow-like tissue were present. At both times, more bone had been formed in calcium phosphate-coated implants than in noncoated samples. Further, in rhBMP-2 and S-300-loaded specimens, bone formation was higher than in rhBMP-2 only-loaded specimens. In rhBMP-2 only-loaded specimens, bone formation was mainly localized inside the mesh material, whereas in specimens loaded with both rhBMP-2 and S-300, the bone was localized inside and surrounding the titanium mesh. The histological findings were confirmed by calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity measurements. In addition, all specimens showed osteocalcin expression as early as 5 days postoperatively.Our results show that the combination of titanium mesh with BMPs can induce ectopic bone formation and that this bone formation seems to be similar to "enchondral" ossification. In addition, a thin calcium phosphate coating can have a beneficial effect on the bone-inducing properties of a scaffold material. Finally, rhBMP-2 and native BMP act synergistically in ectopic bone induction.
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