Proguanil and cycloguanil are organic cation transporter and multidrug and toxin extrusion substrates
SourceMalaria Journal, 16, 1, (2017), article 422
Article / Letter to editor
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IMM - Institute for Molecules and Materials
SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 5: Inflammatory diseases RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
BACKGROUND: Malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis endemic areas show considerable geographical overlap, leading to incidence of co-infections. This requires treatment with multiple drugs, potentially causing adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs). As anti-malarials are generally positively charged at physiological pH, they are likely to interact with human organic cation transporters 1 and 2 (OCT1 and OCT2). These transporters are involved in the uptake of drugs into hepatocytes and proximal tubule cells for subsequent metabolic conversion or elimination. This efflux of cationic drugs from hepatocytes and proximal tubule cells into bile and urine can be mediated by multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K) transporters, respectively. METHODS: Here, the interaction of anti-malarials with these transporters was studied in order to predict potential DDIs. Using baculovirus-transduced HEK293 cells transiently expressing human OCT1, OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2K uptake and inhibition was studied by a range of anti-malarials. RESULTS: Amodiaquine, proguanil, pyrimethamine and quinine were the most potent inhibitors of 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP) transport, a known substrate of OCT1/2, resulting in half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 11, 13, 1.6, and 3.4 microM, respectively. Only quinine had a drug-drug index higher than the cut-off value of 0.1 for OCT2, therefore, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies focusing on DDIs involving this compound and other OCT2-interacting drugs are warranted. Furthermore, proguanil appeared to be a substrate of OCT1 and OCT2 with affinities of 8.1 and 9.0 microM, respectively. Additionally, MATE1 and MATE2-K were identified as putative transport proteins for proguanil. Finally, its metabolite cycloguanil was also identified as an OCT1, OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2-K substrate. CONCLUSION: Anti-malarials can reduce OCT1 and OCT2 transport activity in vitro. Furthermore, proguanil and cycloguanil were found to be substrates of OCT1, OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2-K, highlighting the importance of these transporters in distribution and excretion. As these compounds shares substrate overlap with metformin DDIs can be anticipated during concurrent treatment.
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