The Clinical Course of Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome With Onset in Adulthood or Late Adolescence: A Case Series
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SourceAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases, 69, 5, (2017), pp. 637-646
Article / Letter to editor
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American Journal of Kidney Diseases
SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the treatment and outcome of adult-onset minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). We retrospectively studied 125 patients who had MCNS with onset in either adulthood or late adolescence. Presenting characteristics, duration of initial treatment and response to treatment, relapse patterns, complications, and long-term outcome were studied. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients with new-onset nephrotic syndrome 16 years or older and a histologic diagnosis of MCNS in 1985 to 2011 were identified from pathology records of 10 participating centers. OUTCOMES: Partial and complete remission, treatment resistance, relapse, complications, renal survival. RESULTS: Corticosteroids were given as initial treatment in 105 (84%) patients. After 16 weeks of corticosteroid treatment, 92 (88%) of these patients had reached remission. Median time to remission was 4 (IQR, 2-7) weeks. 7 (6%) patients initially received cyclophosphamide with or without corticosteroids, and all attained remission after a median of 4 (IQR, 3-11) weeks. 13 (10%) patients reached remission without immunosuppressive treatment. One or more relapses were observed in 57 (54%) patients who received initial corticosteroid treatment. Second-line cyclophosphamide resulted in stable remission in 57% of patients with relapsing MCNS. Acute kidney injury was observed in 50 (40%) patients. Recovery of kidney function occurred almost without exception. Arterial or venous thrombosis occurred in 11 (9%) patients. At the last follow-up, 113 (90%) patients were in remission and had preserved kidney function. 3 patients with steroid-resistant MCNS progressed to end-stage renal disease, which was associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions on repeat biopsy. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design, variable treatment protocols. CONCLUSIONS: The large majority of patients who had MCNS with onset in adulthood or late adolescence were treated with corticosteroids and reached remission, but many had relapses. Cyclophosphamide resulted in stable remission in many patients with relapses. Significant morbidity was observed due to acute kidney injury and other complications. Progression to end-stage renal disease occurred in a few patients and was explained by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
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