Plasma levels of danger-associated molecular patterns are associated with immune suppression in trauma patients
SourceIntensive Care Medicine, 42, 4, (2016), pp. 551-561
Article / Letter to editor
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Intensive Care Medicine
SubjectRadboudumc 2: Cancer development and immune defence RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
PURPOSE: Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released of trauma could contribute to an immune suppressed state that renders patients vulnerable towards nosocomial infections. We investigated DAMP release in trauma patients, starting in the prehospital phase, and assessed its relationship with immune suppression and nosocomial infections. METHODS: Blood was obtained from 166 adult trauma patients at the trauma scene, emergency room (ER), and serially afterwards. Circulating levels of DAMPs and cytokines were determined. Immune suppression was investigated by determination of HLA-DRA gene expression and ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine production. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, plasma levels of nuclear DNA (nDNA) and heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) but not mitochondrial DNA were profoundly increased immediately following trauma and remained elevated for 10 days. Plasma cytokines were increased at the ER, and levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but not of pro-inflammatory cytokines peaked at this early time-point. HLA-DRA expression was attenuated directly after trauma and did not recover during the follow-up period. Plasma nDNA (r = -0.24, p = 0.006) and HSP70 (r = -0.38, p < 0.0001) levels correlated negatively with HLA-DRA expression. Ex vivo cytokine production revealed an anti-inflammatory phenotype already at the trauma scene which persisted in the following days, characterized by attenuated TNF-alpha and IL-6, and increased IL-10 production. Finally, higher concentrations of nDNA and a further decrease of HLA-DRA expression were associated with infections. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of DAMPs are associated with immune suppression, which is apparent within minutes/hours following trauma. Furthermore, aggravated immune suppression during the initial phase following trauma is associated with increased susceptibility towards infections.
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