Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the sinonasal region
SourceHead and Neck-Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and Neck, 38 Suppl 1, (2016), pp. E2259-66
Article / Letter to editor
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Head and Neck-Journal for the Sciences and Specialties of the Head and Neck
vol. 38 Suppl 1
SubjectRadboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the sinonasal region, which are relatively uncommon but clinically very important, are reviewed here in the light of current knowledge. Using a definition for neuroendocrine based on phenotypic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic features rather than histogenetic criteria, sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinomas are examined with a particular emphasis on the small-cell and large-cell subtypes. This is followed by revisiting olfactory neuroblastoma because it is also a tumor that shows a neuroendocrine phenotype. Kadish clinical and Hyams histologic grading systems as prognosticators of olfactory neuroblastoma are also considered in detail. Finally, controversies regarding sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma as a neuroendocrine tumor are discussed and a possible relationship with high-grade olfactory neuroblastoma is explored. Genetic events and current management of these tumors are also outlined. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2259-E2266, 2016.
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