beta2-->1-Fructans Modulate the Immune System In Vivo in a Microbiota-Dependent and -Independent Fashion
SourceFrontiers in Immunology, 8, (2017), article 154
Article / Letter to editor
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Amalia Childrens Hospital
Paediatrics - OUD tm 2017
Frontiers in Immunology
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
It has been shown in vitro that only specific dietary fibers contribute to immunity, but studies in vivo are not conclusive. Here, we investigated degree of polymerization (DP) dependent effects of beta2-->1-fructans on immunity via microbiota-dependent and -independent effects. To this end, conventional or germ-free mice received short- or long-chain beta2-->1-fructan for 5 days. Immune cell populations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and Peyer's patches (PPs) were analyzed with flow cytometry, genome-wide gene expression in the ileum was measured with microarray, and gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples. We found that beta2-->1-fructans modulated immunity by both microbiota and microbiota-independent effects. Moreover, effects were dependent on the chain-length of the beta2-->1-fructans type polymer. Both short- and long-chain beta2-->1-fructans enhanced T-helper 1 cells in PPs, whereas only short-chain beta2-->1-fructans increased regulatory T cells and CD11b-CD103- dendritic cells (DCs) in the MLN. A common feature after short- and long-chain beta2-->1-fructan treatment was enhanced 2-alpha-l-fucosyltransferase 2 expression and other IL-22-dependent genes in the ileum of conventional mice. These effects were not associated with shifts in gut microbiota composition, or altered production of short-chain fatty acids. Both short- and long-chain beta2-->1-fructans also induced immune effects in germ-free animals, demonstrating direct effect independent from the gut microbiota. Also, these effects were dependent on the chain-length of the beta2-->1-fructans. Short-chain beta2-->1-fructan induced lower CD80 expression by CD11b-CD103- DCs in PPs, whereas long-chain beta2-->1-fructan specifically modulated B cell responses in germ-free mice. In conclusion, support of immunity is determined by the chemical structure of beta2-->1-fructans and is partially microbiota independent.
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