Molecular and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Characterization of Clinically Significant Melanized Fungi in India
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SourceJournal of Clinical Microbiology, 55, 4, (2017), pp. 1090-1103
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Clinical Microbiology
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
Melanized or black fungi are a heterogeneous group of fungi causing cutaneous to systemic diseases with high mortality. These fungi are rarely reported as agents of human infections, primarily due to difficulties in their classical identification. In this study, we examined, using molecular methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption ioniazation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the diversity of melanized fungi (MF) isolated from patients in 19 medical centers in India. Overall, during a 4-year period, 718 (5.3%) clinical specimens yielded MF. Of these, 72 (10%) isolates had clinical significance and were identified primarily by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit (LSU) regions. MF represented 21 genera comprising 29 species, the majority of them belonging to the orders Pleosporales (50%) and Chaetothyriales (22%). Among the 29 fungal species identified in this study, only 6 (20%) species were identified by the MALDI-TOF MS due to the limited commercial database of Bruker Daltonics for MF. However, a 100% identification rate of 20 additional species identified in this study was obtained by constructing an in-house database using 24- to 96-h-old liquid cultures. Further, the CLSI broth microdilution method revealed low MICs for posaconazole (</=1 mug/ml) and voriconazole (</=2 mug/ml) in 96% and 95% of isolates, respectively. Skin/subcutaneous and sino-nasal and pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis due to MF were diagnosed in 21.4% (n = 15) and 28.5% (n = 20) of cases. Also, 10% of patients had central nervous system involvement (n = 7), and 3 cases of fungal osteomyelitis due to Cladophialophora bantiana and Corynespora spp. were observed.
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