Synovial macrophages promote TGF-beta signaling and protect against influx of S100A8/S100A9-producing cells after intra-articular injections of oxidized low-density lipoproteins
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SourceOsteoarthritis and Cartilage, 25, 1, (2017), pp. 118-127
Article / Letter to editor
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Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
SubjectRadboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 5: Inflammatory diseases RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
OBJECTIVE: Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in inflamed synovium is oxidized and taken-up by synoviocytes. In this study, we investigate whether direct injection of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) into a normal murine knee joint induces joint pathology and whether synovial macrophages are involved in that process. DESIGN: Synovium was obtained from end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) patients in order to analyze LDL-uptake. Murine knee joints were injected five consecutive days with oxLDL, LDL, or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline (PBS)). This procedure was repeated in mice depleted of synovial macrophages by intra-articular injection of clodronate liposomes 7 days prior to the consecutive injections. Joint pathology was investigated by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry (FCM) and synovial RNA expression and protein production. RESULTS: Synovial tissue of OA patients showed extensive accumulation of apolipoprotein B. Multiple injections of oxLDL in murine knee joints significantly increased TGF-beta activity in synovial wash-outs, but did not induce catabolic or inflammatory processes. In contrast, repeated injections of oxLDL in macrophage-depleted knee joints led to increased synovial thickening in combination with significantly upregulated protein and RNA levels of CCL2 and CCL3. FCM-analyses revealed increased presence of monocytes and neutrophils in the synovium, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Also protein levels of S100A8/A9 were significantly increased in synovial wash-outs of oxLDL-injected joints, as was expression of aggrecanase-induced neo-epitopes. Interestingly, no raise in TGF-beta concentrations was measured in macrophage-depleted joints. CONCLUSIONS: OxLDL can affect joint pathology, since synovial macrophages promote anabolic processes after oxLDL injections. In absence of synovial macrophages, however, oxLDL induces production of pro-inflammatory mediators and aggrecanase activity combined with increased influx of monocytes and neutrophils.
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