Soluble TLR2 and 4 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in HIV/SIV-related neuropathological conditions
until further notice
SourceJournal of Neurovirology, 23, 2, (2017), pp. 250-259
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Neurovirology
SubjectRadboudumc 1: Alzheimer`s disease DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Radboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
HIV in the central nervous system (CNS) mainly infects microglial cells which are known to express toll-like receptors (TLRs). This paper aimed to study the role of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2), sTLR4, and other inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in HIV/Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-related neurological sequelae. We determined sTLR2 and sTLR4 levels in CSF and serum/plasma of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with and without neurological sequelae, as well as in HIV-infected patients with and without cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and matched controls. CSF cytokines and chemokines levels were analyzed in macaques as markers of neuroinflammation, while neopterin and S100B CSF concentrations were measured in HIV-infected patients as microglial and astrocyte marker, respectively. We found detectable levels of sTLR2 and sTLR4 in CSF of macaques and humans. Furthermore, CSF sTLR2 and sTLR4 concentrations were higher in SIV-infected macaques with neurological sequelae compared to those without neurological complications (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0006, respectively). CSF IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were elevated in macaques with neurological sequelae, and a positive correlation was found between CSF levels of sTLR2/4 and IL-8 and MCP-1. Also in humans, elevated CSF sTLR4 levels were found in HIV-infected patients with cognitive impairments compared to HIV-infected patients with normal cognition (p = 0.019). Unlike CSF S100B levels, neopterin correlated positively with sTLR2 and sTLR4. No difference was found in plasma and CSF sTLR2 and sTLR4 levels between AD patients and control subjects (p = 0.26). In conclusion, CSF sTLR2 and sTLR4 may play a role in HIV/SIV-related neuroinflammation and subsequent neuropathology.
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