Prevalence of asymptomatic heart failure in formerly pre-eclamptic women: a cohort study
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SourceUltrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 49, 1, (2017), pp. 134-142
Article / Letter to editor
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Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
SubjectRadboudumc 0: Other Research RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 16: Vascular damage RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
OBJECTIVES: After pre-eclampsia (PE), the prevalence of structural heart disease without symptoms, i.e. heart failure Stage B (HF-B), may be as high as one in four women in the first year postpartum. We hypothesize that a significant number of formerly pre-eclamptic women with HF-B postpartum are still in their resolving period and will not have HF-B during follow-up. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we included 69 formerly pre-eclamptic women who underwent serial echocardiographic measurements at 1 and 4 years postpartum. HF-B was diagnosed as left ventricular hypertrophy (left ventricular mass index (LVMi) > 95 g/m2 ), concentric remodeling (relative wall thickness > 0.42 and LVMi </= 95 g/m2 ), mild systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction > 40% and < 55%) or asymptomatic valvular disease. Women were subdivided and analyzed according to HF-B outcome: no HF-B at either visit; HF-B at first visit only; HF-B at second visit only; HF-B at both visits. RESULTS: The prevalence of HF-B in formerly pre-eclamptic women was 23% in the first year postpartum and 23% after 4 years. At the second visit, HF-B had resolved in 62.5% of affected women but was newly developed in 19% of initially unaffected women. At the first visit, 56% of women diagnosed with HF-B had reduced systolic function whereas at the second visit 69% of women with HF-B had concentric remodeling with mostly normal ejection fraction, consistent with diastolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HF-B can be considered consistently high (1 in 4) amongst formerly pre-eclamptic women at follow-up. Nonetheless, at an individual level, more than 60% of women found initially to be affected by HF-B will recover, whilst about 20% of formerly pre-eclamptic women with normal echocardiography in the first year postpartum will develop HF-B over the following years. Copyright (c) 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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