Treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis
SourceJama : Journal of the American Medical Association, 306, 18, (2011), pp. 2011-2019
Article / Letter to editor
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Jama : Journal of the American Medical Association
SubjectAlle HP's en lijnen
CONTEXT: Outcomes following treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with microsurgery, embolization, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or combinations vary greatly between studies. OBJECTIVES: To assess rates of case fatality, long-term risk of hemorrhage, complications, and successful obliteration of brain AVMs after interventional treatment and to assess determinants of these outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed and EMBASE to March 1, 2011, and hand-searched 6 journals from January 2000 until March 2011. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: We identified studies fulfilling predefined inclusion criteria. We used Poisson regression analyses to explore associations of patient and study characteristics with case fatality, complications, long-term risk of hemorrhage, and successful brain AVM obliteration. DATA SYNTHESIS: We identified 137 observational studies including 142 cohorts, totaling 13,698 patients and 46,314 patient-years of follow-up. Case fatality was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.61-0.76) per 100 person-years overall, 1.1 (95% CI, 0.87-1.3; n = 2549) after microsurgery, 0.50 (95% CI, 0.43-0.58; n = 9436) after SRS, and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.67-1.4; n = 1019) after embolization. Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3-1.5) per 100 person-years overall, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.10-0.30) after microsurgery, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.5-1.8) after SRS, and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3-2.3) after embolization. More recent studies were associated with lower case-fatality rates (rate ratio [RR], 0.972; 95% CI, 0.955-0.989) but increased rates of hemorrhage (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03). Male sex (RR, 0.964; 95% CI, 0.945-0.984), small brain AVMs (RR, 0.988; 95% CI, 0.981-0.995), and those with strictly deep venous drainage (RR, 0.975; 95% CI, 0.960-0.990) were associated with lower case fatality. Lower hemorrhage rates were associated with male sex (RR, 0.976, 95% CI, 0.964-0.988), small brain AVMs (RR, 0.988, 95% CI, 0.980-0.996), and brain AVMs with deep venous drainage (0.982, 95% CI, 0.969-0.996). Complications leading to permanent neurological deficits or death occurred in a median 7.4% (range, 0%-40%) of patients after microsurgery, 5.1% (range, 0%-21%) after SRS, and 6.6% (range, 0%-28%) after embolization. Successful brain AVM obliteration was achieved in 96% (range, 0%-100%) of patients after microsurgery, 38% (range, 0%-75%) after SRS, and 13% (range, 0%-94%) after embolization. CONCLUSIONS: Although case fatality after treatment has decreased over time, treatment of brain AVM remains associated with considerable risks and incomplete efficacy. Randomized controlled trials comparing different treatment modalities appear justified.
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