Assessment of near visual acuity in 0-13 year olds with normal and low vision: a systematic review
SourceBMC Ophthalmology, 16, 1, (2016), pp. 215, article 215
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OW PsKI [owi]
SubjectRadboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
BACKGROUND: The inclusion for rehabilitation of visually impaired children is partly based on the measurement of near vision, but guidelines for near visual acuity assessment are currently lacking. The twofold purpose of this systematic review was to: (i) provide an overview of the impact of the chart design on near visual acuity measured, and (ii) determine the method of choice for near vision assessments in children of different developmental ages. METHODS: A literature search was conducted by using the following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE. The last search was run on March 26th 2016. Additional studies were identified by contacting experts and searching for relevant articles in reference lists of included studies. Search terms were: vision test(s), vision assessment(s), visual acuity, chart(s) and near. RESULTS: For children aged 0-3 years the golden standard is still the preferential looking procedure. Norms are available for this procedure for 6-36 month old children. For 4-7 year olds, we recommend using the LEA symbols, because these symbols have been properly validated and can be used in preliterate children. Responses can be verbal or by matching the target symbol. In children aged 8-13 years, the recommended method is the ETDRS letter chart, because letter acuity is more predictive for functional vision and reading than symbol acuity. In 8-13 year olds, letter acuity is 0.1-0.2 logMAR poorer than symbol acuity. CONCLUSIONS: Chart design, viewing distance, and threshold choice have a serious impact on near visual acuity measurements. Near visual acuity measured with symbols is lower than near visual acuity measured with gratings, and near visual acuity measured with letters is lower than near visual acuity measured with symbols. Viewing distance, chart used, and letter spacing should be adapted to the child's development and reported in order to allow comparisons between measurements.
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