Long-term depressive symptoms and anxiety after transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke in young adults
until further notice
SourceEuropean Journal of Neurology, 23, 8, (2016), pp. 1262-1268
Article / Letter to editor
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European Journal of Neurology
SubjectRadboudumc 13: Stress-related disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Radboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few studies exist on long-term post-stroke depressive symptoms and anxiety in young adults, although these young patients have a particular interest in their long-term prognosis, given their usually long life expectancy and being in the midst of an active social, working and family life. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety and their association with clinical and demographic variables and with functional outcome after stroke in young adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Long-term prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety was calculated in 511 patients with a transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke, aged 18-50 years, using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, compared with 147 controls. Functional outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin Score (mRS) and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL). 16.8% of patients had depressive symptoms and 23.0% had anxiety, versus 6.1% (P = 0.001) and 12.2% (P < 0.001) in controls. In ischaemic stroke patients, depressive symptoms and anxiety were associated with poor functional outcome (mRS > 2 or IADL < 8). CONCLUSION: Even a decade after stroke at young age, depressive symptoms and anxiety were prevalent and associated with poor functional outcome. Therefore, even in the long term, treating physicians should be aware of the long-term presence of these symptoms as their recognition may be the first step in improving long-term functional independence.
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